Application of two frequencies sub-bottom profiler technique for mapping the bottom of Shatt Al-Arab River
Journal of Basrah Researches (Sciences),
Volume 45, Issue 1, Pages 86-101
AbstractShatt Al-Arab River is one of the most important Iraqi waterways. It has suffered from different types of natural and man-made variations, specifically the past 40 years such as dramatic declination in water discharges due to recent hydraulic constructions. These changes affected the bottom, sub bottom, and geomorphologic features of the river bed. To images these changes, a marine geophysical survey represented by high-resolution Sub–Bottom Profiler was carried out to describe the morphology, structure, and sub-bottom layers of Shatt Al-Arab river. Four sub-bottom transverse profilers were carried out by Strata Box transducers, 10 kHz at Al-Sendebad Island, Al-Ashaar, Um Al-Rasas Island and Sihan meandering areas.
The results of the sub-bottom profilers showed that the used technique is an essential tool to map sub-marine geological features and locate the buried structures in the river bottom. Specifically, at Al-Sendebad Island, there is a depositional process have increased about 5 m, the recorded depth was 18 m, but it was about (24-22 m) in previous studies. In Al-Ashaar site section, many types of sub bottom layers formed by recent and old deposits were correlated with well-log data, the bearing strata is located at 20 m under the bottom of the river. At Um Al-Resas Island, there is no indication of tectonic activity which may form the Island. The highest depth of the river bottom recorded at Sihan meandering is about 22 m. These changes may due to the changes in the hydrological and depositional systems of the river. At Sihan meandering, there are many prominent features like large depths, river meander, buried channels of ancient streams and a possible trace of fault which may be an indication of neotectonic activity.
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