ISSN: 1817-2695

Volume 34, Issue 2

Volume 34, Issue 2, Spring 2008, Page 1-57

Thermo-Optic Effects and Opto-Electrical Bias in an Electro-Optic Modulation System

M. A. Rahma; M. Aillerie; N. Th; H. L. Saadon; ofanous

Journal of Basrah Researches (Sciences), Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 1-7

In this work, for an electro-optic (EO) crystal, various thermo-optic (TO) and relevant temperature-dependence parameters are defined, presented and studied in the framework of a transverse and a longitudinal EO-modulation system. This study has been based on the concept of the so-called opto-electrical bias (φ) applied to the system. For both of the above EO-modulation systems a set of four original equations has been extracted and is investigated as regards each of the more important TO or temperature coefficients. Using these equations, for these parameters the role of the transverse configuration is examined in comparison with its corresponding longitudinal configuration. A calculation of uncertaintities in the determination of the principal temperature coefficients concludes the paper.

BM-2 Calculations for Even-Even Cadmium Isotopes

Dr. S. N Abood; And; Dr. A. R. Subber

Journal of Basrah Researches (Sciences), Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 8-14

The structure of some even-even Cd isotopes has been studied using the neutron-proton interacting boson model(IBM-2). Theoretical calculations of the energy levels were fitted, the transition probabilities and the multipole mixing ratios for some selected transitions were obtained and compared with the experimental results. The set of model parameters used in this work suggest that most of the Cadmium isotopes are vibrational. The behaviors of the set of parameters in the Hamiltonian were studied as a function of neutron number across the transitional region, notably which indicated manifestly the change of shape of these isotopes from vibrational to almost rotational. The present results are in a good agreement with the experimental work.

Comparison of the population structure of the crab Uca sindensis from two inertidal flat habitats North West Arabian Gulf

Hamza A.Kadhim

Journal of Basrah Researches (Sciences), Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 15-22

The structure of two population of Uca sindensis crab in two habitats at the north west Arabian Gulf were compared. The size of individuals; distribution sex ratio and recruitment were evaluated. The physical properties of sediments (texture and organic matter contents) were also examined. The population structure of the crabs was investigated during one year in two habitats. Crabs were caughted manually from 15 – min during low tide. The carapace width of each crab was measured with caliper and the sex and ovigerous state were recorded. The median size of crabs differed in each sample population. It was smaller at Shatt Al- Arab estuary where as larger at Khor Abdallah. The intertidal zone of Shatt Al Arab estuary and Khor Abdallah showed high productivity. Marked differences were found regarding individual size, either their onset of sexual maturity or their asymptotic size, suggesting that food availability may be favoring growth in the studied population

Hydrochemical Classification of Groundwater in Bahr Al-Najaf, Western Desert, Iraq

Ali H. Al-Aboodi

Journal of Basrah Researches (Sciences), Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 23-32

The chemical composition of groundwater varies by many complex factors that change with depths and over geographic distances. Groundwater quality may be affected by geological formations, in addition to different hydrological conditions and human activities. Eight groundwater samples taken from eight wells are employed to evaluate their hydrochemical properties. TDS values of analyzed samples are ranged between 3080 to 2450 ppm, while their EC values lie between 4.20 to 3.308 mmhos/cm. There is a direct relationship between TDS and EC, square coefficient of correlation is (0.8499). Three methods are used to classify the groundwater samples; Sulin, Scholler and Scholler-Sulin Sulin's graph is indicates that the water source is of marine origin. Scholler-Sulin's method was used to classify groundwater in the studied area. Sulfate ions are the dominant anions. Two major families in the group of sulfate are sulfate sodium and sulfate calcium. The factors (rNa/rCl), (r(Na-Cl)/rSO4) and (rSO4/rCl) are used to determinate the origin of this groundwater. After comparing the values of these factors obtained in the studied area with those known standard values, it appears that the origin of groundwater from type of marine origin.

A Novel Spread Spectrum Algorithm for Audio Watermarking Based on Wavelet Transform

Mikdam A. Turkey Alsalami

Journal of Basrah Researches (Sciences), Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 33-45

This paper presents a new wavelet-based spread spectrum audio watermarking algorithm. In this algorithm, new techniques are proposed. The first technique is used to specify periods of audio signal to insert a watermark into these periods. Selected periods must satisfy conditions designed to enable robust and inaudible embedding. The technique used for that purpose is called Block Selection Process (BSP). Another technique is proposed for watermark embedding. In this technique, embedding operation is achieved by generating signal-dependent watermark patterns and adding them to the signal in wavelet domain. For each watermark bit two patterns are generated; one to be embedded in approximation part and the other to be embedded in details part. Before adding the patterns into audio signal, patterns are modulated and filtered to reduce a possible distortion might be resulted from these patterns. In the detection stage, we must locate where the watermarks were embedded before start extracting them. BSP is used again to accomplish this task. Then, the watermark patterns are regenerated and correlated with the audio signal to decide whether the watermark exists or not. In the proposed algorithm, the watermark patterns are regenerated from watermarked audio signal and reshaped before correlation. A sort of whitening operation is used to enhance watermark detection. The proposed algorithm has been subjected to and survived robustness tests and the results are reported.

A comparative study on blood parameters of two species of cyprinid fish

J. M. A. Alkalby and M.H; AL-Saeed; M. M. Jori

Journal of Basrah Researches (Sciences), Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 46-50

A total of 27 grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella (Val., 1844) and 24 silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (Richardson, 1845) were collected from the Fish farming station of Marine Science Centre- University of Basrah.
Packed cell volume (P.C.V.), haemoglobin concentration (Hb), red blood cells count (R.B.C.) and white blood cells counts (W.B.C.) were estimated. The results show that the silver carp have higher blood parameters than those of grass carp, and there is a strong positive correlation (r=0.50-0.83) between the values of P.C.V. and Hb in both fish species.
In general, the male fishes have higher blood parameters than those of females and there are no significant differences between sexes.

Study the Electrical Conductivity for a New Azo Compound

Kawkab Ali Huissan AL-Ali

Journal of Basrah Researches (Sciences), Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 51-57

New two azo dyes Biphenyl-4,4- bis(4-Azo-8-hydroxy aqunolinol) and Biphenyl-4,4 bis (4-Azo-8-hydroxy aqunolinol ) were prepared. The prepared by fox method, dyes were identified via FTIR-Infrared spectrophotometer and UV-visible spectroscopy. The electrical properties were measured and the result was obtained on conductivity arrived to 10-6 ohm-1. cm-1 with undoping.