ISSN: 1817-2695

Volume 35, Issue 1

Volume 35, Issue 1, Winter 2009, Page 1-76

A Study of pulse heterodyne of Z-Fold waveguide CO2 laser

Hussain A. Badran

Journal of Basrah Researches (Sciences), Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 1-4

Pulse heterodyne of electrooptically Q-switched RF excited Z-fold waveguide CO2 laser with two channels (partial Z-fold channel and single channel) and common electrodes are presented. The Heterodyne waveform of the pulsed laser and the CW laser are compared to pulse waveform of Q-switched laser. CW laser output has been obtained from the single channel. Pulse width is 140 ns, the delay 300 ns and the peak power 300W. The largest tunable range of heterodyne frequency is 150 MHz and the width of the voltage pulse on the crystal is about 1.2μs.

Adomian’s decomposition method for solving one dimensional Schrödinger equation

Muna O. Mezban and; Ahmed K. Shnnan

Journal of Basrah Researches (Sciences), Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 5-11

In this paper, the Adomian decomposition method for solving the Schrödinger equation is implemented with appropriate initial conditions. In comparison with existing techniques and exact solution, the decomposition method is highly effective in terms of accuracy and rapid convergence.

Sensitivity Analysis of Nonlinear Optimization Problem

Khalid A. Abdul-Zahra

Journal of Basrah Researches (Sciences), Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 12-16

In this paper, a new method for obtaining sensitivity information for the parameters of the nonlinear optimization problems (OP)v is presented. These parameters appear in the objective function as well as the constraints. This method depends on using differential equations approach for solving nonlinear programming problem with equality and inequality constraints, the behavior for the local solution for slight perturbation of the parameters in the neighborhood of their chosen initial values is presented by using the technique of trajectory continuation. Finally, an example is given to show the efficiency of the proposed method.

Enforcement of Color Image Copyright Using the Frequency Domain

Haider M. Abdul-Nabi; Zainab B. Dahoos and Muslem M. Khudhair

Journal of Basrah Researches (Sciences), Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 17-25

The advent of the Internet has resulted in many new opportunities for the creation and delivery of content in digital form. Applications include electronic advertising, real time video and audio delivery, digital repositories, libraries, and Web publishing.
An important issue that arises in these applications is the protection of the rights of digital data. One such effort that has been attracting increasing interest is based on digital watermarking techniques.
The watermark techniques are divided into two types, spatial domain and frequency domain techniques. The frequency domain techniques are more stronger than the spatial domain techniques. The proposed algorithm is used with Discrete Cosine transform (DCT). Several experiments were given to illustrates the performance of the proposed scheme. This research focuses on the frequency domain and deals with the images by choosing the best locations to embed the watermark to ensure the digital watermarking requirements.

Frequencies of GSTM1 and GSTT1 Polymorphisms in Iraqi Population

Salwa Jaber Al-Awadi; Ismail H. Aziz; Adnan I. Al-Badran

Journal of Basrah Researches (Sciences), Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 26-33

The glutathione S-transferase (GST) family of enzymes has a vital role in phase II of biotransformation of environmental carcinogens, pollutants, drugs and other xenobiotics. GSTs are polymorphic, with the type and frequency of polymorphism being ethnically dependent. Polymorphisms in GSTs genes have been shown to be associated with susceptibility to disease and disease outcome.
The frequencies of GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms are determined in 160 Iraqi volunteers who had been residents of different areas of Baghdad and Basrah. Blood was collected and DNA extracted by proteinase K/SDS digestion. GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms were analyzed by a PCR-Multiplex procedure.The multiplex PCR protocol was used to simultaneously analyze the presence or absence of gstm1and gstt1 genes. The Albumin gene was used as an internal control(350 bp) whereas the presence of the GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes was identified by 215 and 480 bp fragments, respectively. Although these assays do not distinguish between heterozygote and homozygote positive genotypes, they conclusively identify the null genotypes ( the genes are completely deleted).
The genetic analysis showed that the deletion percentage in the samples was 30% (GSTM1 13.1% and null genotype 10% and 6.9 % for GSTT1) as compared to 70% that was normal. The detected deletions in our population(30% )appear to be lower than or similar to the frequencies of these polymorphisms in other Western countries. But they are lower than those found in Asia

Effect of heated effluents discharged from Al-Hartha electricity power station on the ecosystem of the Shatt Al-Arab River

Sadek A. Hussein; I. J. Al-Shawi and A. M. Abdullah

Journal of Basrah Researches (Sciences), Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 34-41

Impact of heated effluents, discharged from Al-Hartha electrical power station on availability, abundance and distribution of algae in the Shatt Al-Arab River, was investigated on monthly basis from November 1997 to October 1998.Distance affected by heated wastes was determined by 1250m. A total of 79 algal species belong to 45 genera were identified. Diatoms (Bacillariophyta) formed 63 species, green algae (chlorophyta) 14 species and blue green algae (cyanophyta) 12 species, whereas both Euglenophyta and xanthophyta each were represented by one species only. Discharge points of cooling water accounted for the highest number of species (66 species). Also a remarkable increase in the total counts of algal cells was encountered closer to the discharge points (2296 cell/cm2) in June. Diatoms were dominant followed by blue green algae and green algae. However, blue green algae dominated others near discharge points particularly during summer months.

The effect of static magnetic field of mid-shaft femoral fractureshealing in Rabbits

bone; Magnetic field; healing; physiological reactions

Journal of Basrah Researches (Sciences), Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 42-55

This study was done on eighty rabbits to investigate the effect of static magnetic field on the transverse femoral fracture fix by intramedullary pinning. Experimental animals were divided into two main groups, control group contain twenty rabbits, while the treated group were divided into three subgroups as the following.
Control group induce mid-shaft fracture and fixation by intramedullary pinning.
Treated groups which divided into three subgroups, induces fracture similar as in control group and treated as the following:
1. Treated subgroups one (T1), expose to magnetic field (5 gauss).
2. Treated subgroups one (T2), expose to magnetic field (75 gauss).
3. Treated subgroups one (T3), expose to magnetic field (300 gauss).

The radiographic and Histopathological findings at 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 days after operation indicated that the magnetic field accelerates the fracture healing, however, there are differences among treated subgroups , which revealed that T1 and T2 group have somewhat similar results, while T4 best results. The intramedullary pins did not show any side effect on the treatment with magnetic field therapy.


K.H. Al-Sowdani; Abbas D. Al-Maliki and Safaa S. N. Al-Omran

Journal of Basrah Researches (Sciences), Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 56-66

The bromcresol green method was applied for spectrophotometric determination of albumin by using a home-made semi-automated flow injection in some pharmaceutical preparation with recoveries of 98.5-102 % and 54 serum samples of male and female patients in the range 32.48-51.25 g/L.
The method is convenient, simple and sensitive with detection limit (2x noise) 0.625 g/L. The r.s.d % is 0.74 % for 8 measurements of 40 g/L albumin.

Corrosion Inhibition of Carbon steel on Hydrochloric acid Using Zizyphus Spina – Chritisi Extract

Adnan S.Abdul Nabi and Hanan M.Ali

Journal of Basrah Researches (Sciences), Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 67-76

Naturally occurring substances are increasingly being tried to used as corrosion inhibitors of metals in acid cleaning processes to replace some toxic and expensive chemicals currently in use. The corrosion inhibition of carbon steel in hydrochloric acid by Zizyphus Spina – Chritis leaves extract was studied using weight loss techniques. Maximum inhibition efficiency and surface coverage were obtained at an optimum concentration. However, an increase in temperature lead to decreased in the inhibition efficiency at the temperature studied. Optimum inhibition efficiency for carbon steel in the presence of Zizyphus Spina – Chritis leaves extract was 99.5%, 75% and 66% at 1%,1%and 2% concentration of the inhibitor at 25oC, 35oC and 45oC respectively. The phenomenon of physical adsorption has been proposed from the activation energy values (55.66KJmol-1). The surface coverage (θ) data augment the above observation and the inhibition is attributed to the physical adsorption of the chemical components of the additive on the surface of the carbon steel. Inexpensive environmentally safe inhibitor formulations indicate have been obtained.