ISSN: 1817-2695

Volume 39, Issue 3

Volume 39, Issue 3, Summer 2013, Page 1-194


New design of the stepped solar still

Ahmed Jasim Mohammed

Journal of Basrah Researches (Sciences), Volume 39, Issue 3, Pages 1-8

This research a stepped solar still has been constructed and its performance has been evaluated under different atmospheric circumstances of Basra city( Iraq) (Latitude 30° 33' 56.55"N, Longitude 47° 45' 5.86"E) . The still has consists of a basin with area of (0.075 m2) which divided into three basins , area of each basin is(0.025 m2) and provide each basin by reflector (mirrors) area of each one is (0.025 m2), the internal reflectors help to concentrate the sun ray on the basins to increase the productivity of the distilling water(fresh water). The stepped solar still inclined at an angle of (15o), The maximum efficiency of the experimental still varies from (40.6% -75% ).

In vitro study of the effects of some paediatric tonics and appetizers on the male rabbits intestinal smooth muscle motility.

Mustafa A.Hussein

Journal of Basrah Researches (Sciences), Volume 39, Issue 3, Pages 9-14

Vitamins and mineral supplements are needed in very small amounts for growth and for maintaining good health. They are especially useful for children who otherwise cannot or will not consume food that is a good vitamin and minerals source. In the present study we try to investigate the effects of three different pediatric tonic syrups ( B-plex , Vitamin D3 and ferosam) and pediatric appetizer cyproheptadine (periactin) ( Samara industry. Iraq) (SDI), on mammalian intestinal smooth muscle motility, in an attempt to determine whether these medications can contribute to bowel dysfunction and pediatric constipation.
Segments of jejunum were isolated from rabbit's intestine and submerged in Tyroid’s solution which has the same composition of extracellular fluid of the rabbit, they were exposed to different volumes and concentrations of the four medications, and the responses were recorded by a lever which injects ink on a slowly moving drum.
Vitamin B-plex, vitamin D3 and periactin pediatric syrups induced a dose-dependent inhibitions of spontaneous activity of the jejunum, they induced a significant decrease in the amplitude of jejunel contractions and relaxations(motility), while ferosam syrup shows a significant decrease in the amplitude of jejunal motility at 2ml(36mg) concentration only.

Study of the Tensile strength properties of Low density polyethylene composites with Cannabis (Hemp fibers)

Einas A. Al-Nasir

Journal of Basrah Researches (Sciences), Volume 39, Issue 3, Pages 15-22

The mechanical properties of hemp fibers (cellulosic fibers) composites were studied. The range of added Hemp fibers has the values (0%, 3%, 5%, 7%, 10%, 15%, and 20%) of polyethylene weight and, the best fibers ratio was 5%.
The properties (LDPE / Cannabis) composites were analyzed as a function of the fibers amount. All prepared composites showed improved fibers dispersion in the low density polyethylene matrix. All composites displayed lower elongation of break compared to pure LDPE.

Synthesis and investigation of Linear Optical Properties of Novel Azo

Ibrahem K. Ibrahem; Maged A. Nattiq; Mohammed Qasim Mohammed

Journal of Basrah Researches (Sciences), Volume 39, Issue 3, Pages 23-31

The optical properties of an azo dye Poly(4-((3,5-bis(3-ethyl-2-hydroxybenzyl) -4- hydroxybenzyl) diazenyl) benzoic acid) films have been investigated by absorption and transition spectra at wavelength range (300-900 nm) at normal condition . The linear optical parameter includes calculation of ( refractive index, extraction coefficient, absorption coefficient, Real and Imaginary part of dielectric constant, optical conductivity). Urbarch energy( Eu), indirect energy gap and phonon energy EPhonon are equals 0.41497 eV, 2.3059 eV and 147.35 eV, respectively have also studied.

A New Coverage Improvement Algorithm Based on

Ali Fadil Marhoon; Auhood Mokar Dyesh

Journal of Basrah Researches (Sciences), Volume 39, Issue 3, Pages 32-44

Among these major drawbacks is the problem of the limited power supply since it is battery operated, many applications involve many other requirements besides energy keeping like gathering precise information and having active nodes in all parts in the network which can be referred as “network coverage”.
LEACH is one of the routing protocols in wireless sensor networks but it cannot provide many of the above mentioned requirements .
This paper presents a new algorithm which develops LEACH algorithm to improve the network coverage.

Preparation, Characterization and Evaluation of Some Metronidazole Formulations as Films and The study of Their Medicinal Activities Against Pathogenetic Microorganisms Causing Dermatitides.

Nadia A. Al-Assady; Sanaa Q.Bader; Sahar A. Al-Abdullah

Journal of Basrah Researches (Sciences), Volume 39, Issue 3, Pages 45-71

In the present study, a labor has been made to develop film type of transdermal therapeutic system comprising different concentrations of metronidazole with hydrophilic polymeric combinations using solvent casting (evaporation) technique. The DSC analysis confirmed that ester bonds were formed between the used polymers in preparing the films. The prepared films were considred semi-IPNs hydrogels and the mixture between the used polymers and metronidazole in preparing the films is considred physical mixing viz., chemical, physical and therapeutical properties of drug remained themselves. Two main parts including chemical and biochemical were discussed in this study. In the chemical part, the prepared films F0 and F3 were evaluated via the study of weight and thickness uniformities and swelling behaviour. In vitro drug release and kinetics of drug release were studied for all the prepared pharmaceutical formulations in this study. F3 was higher average weight and thickness as compared to F0 and in addition to their possession of the same swelling behaviour which was explained on the basis of the increase in swelling index up to period at 70 min and which was followed by the decrease in this index according to cleavage of the formed ester bonds in the crosslinked structure, erosion process with physical disintegration and mass loss. Also, the prepared formulation F3 followed zero order, Korsmeyer-Peppas model and Fickian (n<0.5) transport mechanism (diffusion controlled release). In the biochemical part, the biochemical activities of all the prepared formulations (as antimicrobials) were studied (in vitro) in four types of microbes including Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive), Staphylococcus epidermidis (Gram-positive), Candida albicans (yeast) and Trichophyton sp. (mold) by using agar diffusion method. These formulations showed increasing in their biochemical activities against these isolates and these activities associated with the increase in drug concentrations which were loaded with the selected polymers in this study and in addition to their possession of highest antimicrobial and biochemical activities to inhibit the growth of these microbial isolates as compared to pure drug and commercial gel at (p<0.05). Also, the prepared formulations including F0 and F3 were applied (in vivo) to skin of male rabbits for studying subacute toxicity test (LD50) and skin (back and rectal) irritation tests. These formulations were not poisonous and non irritant.

Nuclear radiation effect on ZnO performance

Huda.S.Ghally; H. A. Hussain; Basil Ali

Journal of Basrah Researches (Sciences), Volume 39, Issue 3, Pages 72-81

ZnO nanoparticle thin films were derived by sol – gel using spin coating technique. The thin films were prepared by deposited onto glass substrate at room temperature using sol gel composed from Zinc Acetate de-hydrate, Diethanol amine, isopropanol, and de-ionized water, the films were furnace at 600 degree for 60 min.
X-ray diffraction have been used to study crystallographic structures of ZnO thin films. The optical properties of the prepared films were studied using UV-VIS spectrophotometer with the range 320 - 1000 nm, and by using the fluorescence spectrometer. These thin films were exposed to nuclear radiation, alpha particles were the most effected one on the performance of the films than gamma rays.

Synthesis, Characterization of Some Azo Dyes Derived From Sulfa Drugs and the Use of Them as Corrosion Inhibitors in 0.5M Hydrochloric Acid Solution

Adnan Sultan Abdul-Nabi; Ekhlas Qanber Jasim

Journal of Basrah Researches (Sciences), Volume 39, Issue 3, Pages 82-106

Three azo dyes derived from sulfa drugs and pyridoxal were synthesized. The prepared compounds were identified by CHNS analysis FT-IR and 1H-NMR spectroscopy. The prepared azo dyes were studied as corrosion inhibitors in 0.5M HCl solution by the weight loss and galvanostatic polarization techniques in the range of temperature 30, 40, 50 and 60oC. the results obtained revealed that A2 performed excellently as a corrosion inhibitor for C-steel in hydrochloric acid media and its efficiency attains 80% at 5x10-3M, time of 5hr and at 30oC. The efficiency of inhibitors was decreased as the temperature increases. The effect of temperature on the rate of corrosion in the absence and presence of these compounds was also studied. The Langmuir adsorption isotherm was tested for their fit to the experimental data. The apparent activation energies, Arrhenius constant, enthalpies and entropies of the dissolution process and the free energies and adsorption equilibrium constant for the adsorption process were determined and discussed. The fundamental thermodynamic functions were used to glean important information about A1, A2 and A3 inhibitory behavior.

Effect of Sorbitol on Callus Induction and Somatic Embryos Regeneration in Two Local Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Cultivars

Luma H. Abdul-Qadir; Marwa E. Karem; Hussein K. Al-Kaaby

Journal of Basrah Researches (Sciences), Volume 39, Issue 3, Pages 107-113

Two local wheat varieties cultivars named Dor29 and Fateh were evaluated to determine the impact of 0, 10, 20 and 30 g.l-1 sorbitol for callus induction and somatic embryos regeneration. Mature seeds of the tested cultivars were selected as explants for callus induction and regeneration on MS medium with Gambrog vitamins containing 30 g.l-1 sucrose, 5 g.l-1 agar, 2 mg.l-1 BA and 1 mg.l-1 2,4-D.
Results were showed that sorbitol at 20 g.l-1 had a significant effect on callus fresh weight; mean globular somatic embryos number with no significant difference between the two cultivars under investigation. The obtained results from our study suggested that the optimal callus induction medium was MS + Gambrog vitamins + 30 g.l-1 sucrose + 20 g.l-1 sorbitol + 2 mg.l-1 BA + 1 mg-2,4-D + 5 g.l-1 agar ,while maximum number of somatic embryos formed at the same previous medium with the amition of BA and 2,4-D.

Preparation ,Characterization and Evaluation of controlled release microspheres Containing Amphotericin B

Eman Saad Ali; Nadia Ashour Hussein; Inaam Mhmood Najem Alrubayae; Al-Assady

Journal of Basrah Researches (Sciences), Volume 39, Issue 3, Pages 114-131

The purpose of this research work was to prepare , characterize and evaluate microspheres for controlled release delivery of Amphotericin B (AmB) , as a model drug, with two natural polymers like Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) and gelatin by a solvent/ evaporation method, induced by addition of glutaraldehyde (GA) as a cross-linking agent. The microspheres were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy FT-IR, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and photomicrographs microscopy. The effect of different process parameters, such as drug/polymer ratio and Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) / gelatin ratio, on the morphology, size distribution, in vitro drug release and release kinetics of microspheres were studied. The microspheres had mean diameters between 16-60 μm. The results show that the drug release rate from smaller microspheres was faster than from larger microspheres. Also the increasing the drug content of microspheres from 5 mg to 15 mg led to significantly faster drug release from microspheres. The total amount of drug released from microspheres after 12h in phosphate buffer saline, pH 7.4 at 37°C were 72% - 98% . The coefficient of determination indicated that the release data was best fitted with zero order kinetics. Higuchi equation explains the diffusion controlled release mechanism. Finally , The results show that biological activities for the microspheres loaded with AmB exceed biological activities against three types of fungal isolates including Candida albicans, Trichophyton rubrum, and Aepergillus fumigates in comparison with activity of AmB alone.

Preparation and Study Energy gap of ZnO thin film nanostructure

Huda.S.Ghally; H. A. Hussain; Basil Ali

Journal of Basrah Researches (Sciences), Volume 39, Issue 3, Pages 132-140

ZnO nanoparticle thin films were derived by sol – gel using spin coating technique. The thin films were prepared by deposited onto glass substrate at room temperature using sol gel composed from Zinc Acetate de-hydrate, Diethanol amine, isopropanol, and de-ionized water, the films were furnace at 600 degree for 60 min.
X-ray diffraction have been used to study crystallographic structures of ZnO thin films. The optical properties of the prepared films were studied using UV-VIS spectrophotometer with the range 320 - 1000 nm, and by using the fluorescence spectrometer. These thin films were exposed to nuclear radiation, alpha particles were the most effected one on the performance of the films than gamma rays.

The effect of temperature on the mechanical properties of ZnO material: the calculation of generated electrical energy from ZnO nanowires

C. A. Emshary; R. R. Attab

Journal of Basrah Researches (Sciences), Volume 39, Issue 3, Pages 141-149

This work report on the calculations of the temperature dependence of young's modulus, dielectric, piezoelectric and elastic coefficients, poisson ratio and moment of inertia. These parameters are key parameters in the calculation of electrical energy generated from bending of ZnO nanowires (NW's) of length and width equals to 600nm and 50nm respectively due to applying an external force in one direction by an AFM tip (Atomic force microscopy) in the limits of elasticity. Results show that the young's modulus and dielectric coefficient show indirect proportionality with temperature while other parameters shows direct proportionality. These parameters having profound effect on the amount of the maximum generated voltage. The effect of the dependence of young modulus on temperature on the harvested electrical energy from ZnO nanowire formed on a substrate is minor.

Indoor Radon Concentration in the Basra Sport City,

Waleed H. Al-Mosuwi; Abdul Ridha H. Subber

Journal of Basrah Researches (Sciences), Volume 39, Issue 3, Pages 150-157

Radon from inside buildings, hotels under instruction and basement of the main stadiums in Basra Sport City (BSC), have been investigated. The measurements were carried out in 31 sites, using CR-39 and LR-115 solid state nuclear track detectors SSNTDs. The measurements were performed during winter and spring seasons of the year 2012, for a period of 100 days using a total of 31 detectors . The detectors were installed in underground basement areas of the stadium and hotels in BSC, selected randomly in the surveyed area. The results of indoor radon levels in these sites were found to vary from 203.0 Bq m-3 to 1158.0 Bq m-3, with average values of 117.0 Bq m-3. The radon annual effective dose ranged from 1.60 mSv y-1 to 9.12 mSv y-1 . The corresponding mean values of annual effective dose for the sites was 3.02 mSv y-1, indicates that the basements, storage areas and tunnels are safe occupancies.

Synthesis and characterization of 1,3,4-Oxadiazoles Derivatives from 4-Phenyl-Semicarbazide

Wisam A. Radhi; Ahmed Majeed Jassem; Hadi A. Jaber

Journal of Basrah Researches (Sciences), Volume 39, Issue 3, Pages 158-170

In this work, a series of novel 1-(2-(4-xphenyl)-5-(phenylamino)-1,3,4- oxadiazole-3(2H)-yl) ethanone (X=H,OH,Cl,NO2,N(CH3) (4a-e) were prepared from the condensation of Schiff base (3a-e) with acetic acid. The azomethines were prepared from the corresponding 4-phenyl semi carbazide(1) with aryl aldehydes (2a-e). This convenient method benefits from its broad applicability, ease and safety reagent handing, simple product isolation. All the reaction was routinely monitored and purity was determined, on thin layer chromatography using coated aluminum plates and spots were visualized by exposing the dry plates in iodine vapours. The structure elucidation of synthesized compound is based on the 1HNMR, FTIR, U.V spectral data, mass spectroscopy , melting points and computational methods . Our results indicate that the energy differences between the lowest unoccupied molecular orbit and the highest occupied molecular orbit are predominantly affected by the terminal groups of the Oxadiazoles compounds.

Nuclear Structure 0f Ce Isotopes Using IBM Results

A.AL-Hilfy; A.J. M. AL-Asadir; F.H. AL-KhudaiA

Journal of Basrah Researches (Sciences), Volume 39, Issue 3, Pages 171-177

The Ce isotopes of even mass number ( A=130 to A=136 ) were studied by using the Interacting Boson Model (IBM) results. The electric quadruple transitions and energy levels of these isotopes were investigated for there are experimental evidences that these nuclei have a gamma soft traixialrotor O(6) like. The calculated results were compared with the available experimental data, the results were in general good agreement.

Energy Spectrum and B(E2) transitions of ND-144

J. M. AL-Asadi

Journal of Basrah Researches (Sciences), Volume 39, Issue 3, Pages 178-181

The excited energy state of three bands (ground, beta and gama bands) and E2 transitions probability are calculated using the collective models IBM-1 and IBM-2, these calculated results compared with the experimental results. These calculations were made for the even-even nucleus ND-144.

Pulmonary function tests in male patients with type II diabetes mellitus.

Azza Sajid Gabbar Alkinany

Journal of Basrah Researches (Sciences), Volume 39, Issue 3, Pages 182-187

Diabetes mellitus is a condition in which a person has a high blood glucose level. It is associated with different complications and impairment in the function of many organic systems. This study was to investigate the pulmonary function in males’ patient with type 2 diabetes mellitus, which is more common than type1.Lung function was evaluated by measuring lung function tests FEV1, FVC and FEV1% of two male groups: diabetic and healthy subjects. The measurement was done by using micro medical spirometer. The results showed that there were no significant differences in FEV1and FVC. The only significant reduction was in the FEV1% . In conclusion: Lung function may be affected by Diabetes mellitus type II as reflected by FEV1%,but not FEV1and FVC.There are many possible reasons for these variable changes. The most possible explanation may be due to the effect of disease duration and treatment.

Effect of surface temperature on the neutral probabilities of alkli-ions scattered at Al(111)

Samira Fakher Resan

Journal of Basrah Researches (Sciences), Volume 39, Issue 3, Pages 188-194

The non perturbative coupled-angular-mode (CAM) method is applied to the treatment of the parallel velocity-assisted charge-transfer process in grazing scattering of alkali-metal ions at Al(111) surface. The neutralization of 〖Li〗^+ , 〖Na〗^(+ ),K^(+ ),〖and Rb〗^+projectiles is studied at different degrees of the temperatures .