ISSN: 1817-2695

Volume 40, Issue 1

Volume 40, Issue 1, Winter 2014, Page 1-159


Optical constants of Zinc sulphide ZnS thin films for different annealing Temperature

Hamza Bakr Salman and Hussein Falaih Hussein

Journal of Basrah Researches (Sciences), Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 1-11

Zinc sulphide ZnS thin films were prepared by the spray pyrolysis (SP) technique on glass substrates at different temperatures (450, 500,550 and 600°C). Transmittance and absorbance measurements in the wavelength range (200–1000 nm) were used to calculate the refractive index n and the extinction coefficient k. The optical band gap Eg(=E_(opt.)^WD), optical conductivity σopt, complex dielectric constant ε1, ε2, ε∞, relaxation time τ, average interband oscillator wave length λo average oscillator strength So, N/m*(N the free charge carrier concentration , m* the effective mass of the free charge carrier ) and dissipation factor tanδ were determined. The analysis of the optical absorption data indicates that the optical band gap was indirect transitions. According to Wemple and Didomenico method, the optical dispersion parameters Eo and Ed were determined.

Electron Tunnelling Through a Quantum Dot Induced by Temperature Gradient : Weak and Strong Coupling cases

Musa Kadhim Shamer and JenanMajeed Al-Mukh

Journal of Basrah Researches (Sciences), Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 12-27

An extended theoretical study for electron transport through a quantum dot embedded between two normal leads is presented; the system under consideration is taken out of equilibrium by induced temperature gradient. We model this quantum dot as single impurity (with two energy levels) to study the electron tunneling process through it. Its occupation numbers and tunneling current are formulated as a function of all important “chemisorption” functions that are related to the tunneling process. Our treatment allows for the tunneling current through the quantum dot to be calculated depending on the spin-dependent occupation numbers. The related relations which are spin-dependent are solved self-consistently to calculate the quantum dot energy levels and their occupation numbers and broadenings as well as the correlation energy.The weak and strong coupling regimes will be studied and discussed extendedly.

Synthesizing and determining the optical properties and the surface, volume energy loss function of novel azo dye polymer (PHPP)

Maged Abdullah Nattiq

Journal of Basrah Researches (Sciences), Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 28-38

In this paper, azo dye polymer materials were synthesized from aniline with Novolac by Fox method. The fundamental optical constants of PHPP film measured at thickness 5μm film have been calculated by depending on the curve of absorption and transition spectra over the spectral of 300-900 nm in the room temperature. The energy gap was valued 4.176 eV. Finally, the interband transition strength, surface and volume energy loss function have been obtained depending on dielectric constant of the film.

Structural and Optical Characterization of ZnO Thin Films bySol-gelTechnique

Mohammad Muhsein Ali and Seif Mohammad Meshari

Journal of Basrah Researches (Sciences), Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 39-48

The ZnO thin films have been fabricated on commercial glass substrates by sol-gel spin coating process and annealing temperatures 300oC, 400oC and 500oC. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and UV-VIS-NIR are used to characterize ZnO thin films. X-ray diffraction study show that all the films prepared in this work have hexagonal wurtzite polycrystalline structure, with lattice constants a=b=3.260Å, c=5.215Å. A significant increase in the XRD peak intensities for the ZnO films after annealing can be observed. Scherrer's formula was used to calculate crystallite size. The optical band gap energy of thin films is found to be direct allowed transition with average value 3.25 eV. Urbach energy is calculated. The average value of transmittance of thin films in visible range is found to be 9%-93%.

Bands Levels structure and electromagnetic transitions of O(6) nucleus 128Xe

Abdul Ridha H. Subberand Ashwaq F. Jaafer; Falih H. Al-Khudair

Journal of Basrah Researches (Sciences), Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 49-61

An analysis of levels structure of 128Xe isotope within the framework of the proton-neutron interacting boson model is presented. Reduced electric quadrupole transition probabilities B(E2)and their ratios are reproduced. The mixing ratios for transitions with 0 or 1, 0 are compared with experiment. The presence of the mixed symmetry state in this isotope is discussed. Generally good agreement is obtained with a restricted number of adjustable parameters. Some predictions are presented for nucleus for which no experimental data are available.

The dynamical characteristics of InAs/ InGaAs Quantum dot semiconductor laser under optical feedback

M.O.Oleiwi and C.A.Emshary

Journal of Basrah Researches (Sciences), Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 62-75

We study the effects of optical feedback on the dynamics of InAs/InGaAs quantum dot semiconductor laser via the use of five equations model that describe the dynamics of such lasers and the addition of a new term that takes into account the effects of feedback and six equation concerning the phase of the electric field .The effect of a number of control parameters viz optical feedback strength, phase shift and round-trip time of light in the external cavity is being tested. Rich and varieties of dynamics appeared to occur ranging from periodic to chaotic ones.

11- Brauer trees of S ̅_20

Ahmed Hussein Jassim

Journal of Basrah Researches (Sciences), Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 76-86

In this paper we find the Brauer trees of the representation group S ̅_20 of the symmetric group S_20 modulo p=11 which can give the decomposition matrix for the spin characters of S_20.

A Sequence of Linear and Positive Operators for the Functions of Growth 2^x

Ali J.ohammed and Haneen J. Sadiq

Journal of Basrah Researches (Sciences), Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 87-93

The purpose of this paper is to introduce and study a sequence of linear and positive operators to approximate unbounded functions in the interval [0,∞) of growth2^x.Our aim is to study the convergence of this sequence and introduce some approximation properties which lead us to provide proof that discusses Voronovskaja-type asymptotic formula for this sequence.

Antibacterial activities secondary metabolites from endophytic fungusFusariumsolani.

T.M.Muhsin and K.J.Humadi; R.R.Hateet

Journal of Basrah Researches (Sciences), Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 94-101

An endophytic fungus isolated from root of tomato plant displayed considerable antibacterial activity. The fungus was identified as Fusariumsolanibased on morphological characterization. Fungal extraction was carried out by ethyl acetate solvent. The metabolite showed activity against both bacterial testes. Bioactivity of fungal extract against E. coli(ATCC25922) and S. aureus (NCTC6571)by using a disc diffusion technique was examined. The inhibition zones exhibited by fungal extract were 28 mm diam of E. coli and 45 mm diam of S. aureus . MIC test revealed that the extract of Fusariumsolaniexhibited a minimal inhibition values (12.5 and 6.25 ug/L) against E. coli and S. aureus, respectively. A verification of non-toxicity of the fungal extract against human blood revealed a negative test. The chemical analysis of the fungal crude extract showed that extract of Fusariumsolani contains Tannins group and phenol compounds, absent amino acid and flavenoide.The metabolite produced by the endophytic fungus could be an alternative source of antimicrobial agents against clinical pathogens.

Determination of Iron in Human serum samples of Thalassaemia patients by Flame Atomic Absorption

SafaaSabriNajim

Journal of Basrah Researches (Sciences), Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 102-109

A simple and sensitive flame atomic absorption spectrophotometric method has been used forthe determination of iron concentration in blood serum for both (male and female) of Thalassemia patients group and normalgroup. The method is compared with a standard spectrophotometric method. The two methods are based on the reaction of iron with ferene reagent at acidic condition. The results of 84 samples showed that the distribution of iron concentration between serum samples isranged between (401.3) and (440.3) µg /dL for female and male respectively of thalassemia patients group, (66.3), (90.6) µg/dL for normal female and male group, so theanalysis of iron levels in serum showed that iron levels in serum of thalassemia patients group were significantly higher than the normal group and the value of iron in the serum of the male of thalassemia patients group and normal group is higher than female. Values of iron content measured in the serum samples by flame atomic absorption method are in good agreement with the results obtained with the standard spectrophotometric method, the calculated t value was less than t tabulated value, therefore no significant difference between the two methods at 95% confidence level was found.

The study of potential environmental risks of some industrial pollutants factors discharged from Najibia Power Plant upon Shatt Al-Arab River

Amal Mussa Eassa and Luma Jassim Mohammed; Inas Kassim Mohammed

Journal of Basrah Researches (Sciences), Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 110-121

A survey study was conducted upon industrial effluents of Najibia power plant comprising the annual average of thirteen physico-chemical parameters (pH, water temperature, total Suspended Solids, sulphate; chloride, oil & grease, phosphate, chemical oxygen demand, iron, copper; boron, chromium and zinc) which belongs to the period from a year of 2003 to 2012 so as to assess the physico-chemical characteristics of its effluents depending upon Iraqi and international standards and to investigate the environmental impact resulting from them. The one sample statistical test showed high significantl variation (P ˂ 0.001) for all of these parameters. pH values were found to be neutral to alkaline in nature and their average value was within the Iraqi guideline (2001) and World Bank Group Standards (1998). Only the maximum value of water temperature exceeded the guidelines while all other values in addition to the average value were within the Iraqi guideline values of effluents (2001). All values of total suspended solids in addition to the average value was within the Iraqi guideline values of effluents (2001) and World Bank Group Standard (1998). All values of Sulphate in addition to the average exceeded the Iraqi guideline values of effluents (2001).The average value of chloride was within the Iraqi guideline values of effluents (2001). The maximum value of grease & oil exceeded the Iraqi guideline values of effluents (2001) and World Bank Standard (1998) while the average was within them. All values of phosphate in addition to their average was within the Iraqi guideline values of effluents (2001) while the average value was within World Bank Group Standards (1998) and most of the other values exceeded them. All values of chemical oxygen demand were within the Iraqi guideline values of effluents (2001) and World Bank Group Standards (1998). At last, the average of heavy metal values were arranged in sequence as follows: Fe ˃ Zn ˃ B ˃ Cu ˃ Cr. and all their values were within the Iraqi guideline values of effluents (2001) and World Bank Group Standards (1998).

Antifungal and antibacterial activity of flavonoid extract from Terminalia chebula Retz. fruits

Sameerah Ahmed Zearah

Journal of Basrah Researches (Sciences), Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 122-131

The present study was designed to determine the antifungal , antibacterial and cytotoxicity activities of the flavonoid extracted from Terminalia chebula Retz. fruits . The flavonoid extract showed greater antifungal activity against Aspergillus funigalus than Candida albicans by using agar well diffusion method for all concentrations , It was found that these activities increased with the extract concentration increases .The Diameter of the inhibition zone of Aspergillus funigalus ( 30 mm) while Candida albicans ( 21 mm) at a concentration of is (150 mg/ml) . The results showed that the antibacterial activity of flavonoid extract against gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus spp.) bacteria greater than gram negative (Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and, E. coli). The extract showed high activity against Streptococcus spp. with inhibition zone (36 mm) than that of (Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and, E. coli) (30 mm) at a concentration of 500 mg/ml , and minimum inhibitory concentration of flavonoid extract was ( 25 mg/ml ) for Staphylococcus aureus and ( 100 mg/ml ) for E. coli .The results of cytotoxicity against the human red blood cells proved that the flavonoid extract had no cytotoxic effect at all the concentrations tested (ranging between 0.5-250 ppm) , by using DMSO solution as a control.

The Correlation Analysis of Substituents Effect on 13C NMR Chemical Shifts of E-2-(-4’-X-benzylidene)-1-indanones, -tetralones, –benzosuberones and Chalcones.

Sabih Abdul-wadood Othman Al-Shawi

Journal of Basrah Researches (Sciences), Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 132-145

The 13C Substituent Chemical Shifts (SCS) effect on (Cα )C2, C9a, (C )C10 and C1’ atoms for E-2-(-4’-X-benzylidene)-1-indanones, -tetralones, –benzosuberones and Chalcones (X= H, NMe2, OMe, Me, F, Cl, Br, CN, NO2) in CDCl3 solvent. The effect was studied using two different types of substituent parameter: namely mono substituent parameter MSP ( 13 model, Hammett’s and the Brown-Okamoto models), and dual substituent parameters DSP (modified Swain-Lupton, Reynolds, Taft and modified Godfrey models). Both MSP and DSP models reflected that the resonance effect contributes more on the chemical shift of (Cα )C2, while inductive effects primarily affect the chemical shift of (C )C10 of the enone moiety of all the four series. The latter effect, however, is far not as pronounced as that of the former one. It is found that DSP model ( F and R values) of 13C SCS effect on C2 can serve as a measure to study the conformation (or the planarity) of the investigated enones in the four series. Finally, MSP and DSP models performance are performed.

Uncatalyzed thermal synthesis of new 1,2,3- triazole derivaties

Faeza Al-mashal and Nazik Hameed

Journal of Basrah Researches (Sciences), Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 146-159

Two of new Azide and two of new 1,2,3-triazole compounds were synthesized. The triazole compound was prepared by 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction of azido sulfacetmide and azido sulfamethazin with acetylene dicarboxylic acid in acetone as a solvents under reflux condition without catylest. The reaction mixture was followed by TLC and the yields of products following columgromotography. IR, H-NMR and Mass spectroscopes were used for the identification of prepared compounds