ISSN: 1817-2695

Volume 45, Issue 1

Volume 45, Issue 1, Spring 2019


Effect of Annealing Temperature on Structural and Optical Properties of CdS Thin Films Prepared by CBD and Thermal Evaporation Techniques

Mohammad Ali; Saeed J. Abbas; Alaa S. Al-Kabbi

Journal of Basrah Researches (Sciences), Volume 45, Issue 1, Pages 1-14

The CdS thin films were deposited on glass substrates by two different methods, chemical
bath deposition (CBD) and thermal evaporation (T.E.). The effect of annealing temperature on the
structural and optical properties of the CdS thin films were investigated. The structural properties of
CdS thin film was studied by X-ray diffraction. It was observed that the films have a polycrystalline
hexagonal (wurtzite) structure with preferred orientation along (002) plane. The crystallite size
calculated from XRD increases as the annealing temperature is increased. We observed that the
lattice constant, micro strain, dislocation densities and number of crystallites per unit area of the
films are quite different in these processes from XRD analysis by considering high intense
diffraction peaks of the as-deposited and annealed films. The energy band gap in nanocrystalline
CdS thin films has been estimated from absorption measurements. The band gap values for CBD-
CdS thin films decreased from 2.75 to 2.45 eV and for T.E.-CdS thin films decreased from 2.60 to
2.43 eV with increasing annealing temperature. Small nanocrystals display wide band gaps as a
result of the quantum confinement experienced by nanocrystals of a certain size.

Synthesis, Characterization, and Cytotoxicity study of Some Pyridine Chalcone Derivatives

Hussein F. Neamah; Ali A. A. Al-Shawi; Nezar L. Shihab

Journal of Basrah Researches (Sciences), Volume 45, Issue 1, Pages 14-31

    Currently, chalcone derivatives are an interest research for the designing a new compounds as anticancer agents due to the privilate structure of chalcone compounds in the drug discovery system. In this study, we synthesized 5 chalcone derivates which are (CH (A) , CH (B) , CH (C) , CH (E) , and CH (D)) from the reaction of substituted acetophenone with 2- pyridine carboxyaldehyde by using Claisen- Schmidt condensation method and catalyze the reaction by KOH pellets. After purification process, the yield was good to characterize them by using chemical structure analysis (FTIR, C13NMR, Mass spectrum), which approved their structures. Cytotoxicity evaluation was with 100 µM for each concentration compound against Human Breast Cancer MDA-MB231 Cells and we identified two pyridine chalcone derivatives showed a moderate action. The results of toxicity evaluation pave a forward step to develop new anticancer agents as from pyridine chalcones as a lead structure.

Estimation and Evaluate of uric acid , Cholesterol and Triglycerides Levels in Hypertension patients in Basra Governorate – Iraq

Sahera Gh. Sayyah; Haneen S. Khalil

Journal of Basrah Researches (Sciences), Volume 45, Issue 1, Pages 32-43

    The study included the measurement of the mean serum Uric acid, Cholesterol, Triglycerides levels in hypertension patients in Basra Governorate – Iraq. In this study a total number of (80) hypertensive patients (41 males, 39 females) classified according to (age, sex, family history, severity and smoking) as compared with (60) healthy (34 males, 26 females) subjects were investigated as control group. It was found that a highly significant increase is in uric acid, triglycerides and cholesterol in the blood of hypertensive patients as compared with healthy subjects. In accordance with age, severity, family history and smokers. There were significant changes in these variables   between males and females. In conclusion hypertensive patients suffer a high degree of reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation causing considerable oxidative stress indicated a high levels of the serum uric acid, triglycerides and cholesterol.         

Pre-Treatment Of Erythrocytes With Garlic Or Tea Tree Oil Promotes Oxidation Of The Peroxiredoxin 2 Protein And Makes The Cells Less Susceptible To Infection By Plasmodium Falciparum

SARMAD A. M. AL-ASADI; ROSHNI x THATTENGAT; IAN MENZ; KATHRYN A. SCHULLER

Journal of Basrah Researches (Sciences), Volume 45, Issue 1, Pages 45-56

      Plasmodium falciparum, the causal organism of the most deadly form of human malaria, lacks catalase and glutathione peroxidase enzymes and thus is highly dependent on peroxiredoxin (Prx) enzymes for its defence against oxidative stress. In addition to its own five Prx enzymes, P. falciparum also uses the human Prx2 protein which it imports from the host erythrocyte. Here we have investigated the effects of pre-treatment of uninfected erythrocytes with increasing concentrations of garlic or tea tree oil on the redox/oligomerization state of the Prx2 protein and on the P. falciparum parasitemia in the erythrocytes. Both oils were shown to be able to disrupt the Prx2 redox state in pre-treated uninfected erythrocytes by promoting oxidised dimer formation. Garlic oil was a more potent promotor of the oxidation/inactivation of the Prx2 protein than tea tree oil. The results also showed that both oils promoted oxidation/inactivation of the Prx2 protein at the 2nd generation ring stage and also appeared to promote oxidation of other sulfhydryl group-containing proteins. Additionally, pre-treatment of uninfected erythrocytes with the test oils made the erythrocytes less susceptible to infection by P. falciparum at the 2nd generation ring stage (new infections). Garlic oil was more effective than tea tree oil in this respect. Thus, oxidation of the Prx2 protein might be involved in decreasing the susceptibility of pre-treated uninfected erythrocytes to infection by P. falciparum. These results suggest that garlic and tea tree oils could be used as antimalarial drugs.

The Electron Transport Properties of Qubit Coupled with SET: The Tuning of the Qubit Energy Levels

Jenan M. Al-Mukh; Ayat T. Ibrahim

Journal of Basrah Researches (Sciences), Volume 45, Issue 1, Pages 46-64

     In this study, theoretical treatment is presented to study the electron transport for a system consists of two principle coupled parts, these are the key element of quantum computer which is represented by the qubit and the detector.  Model calculation that includes the derivatives of the time dependent equations of motion for the system under consideration is presented.  We find particular relations for the time variation of the occupation numbers of the qubit quantum dots and the single electron transistor dot as well as the current that flows from the left lead. Perfect quantum measurement can be obtained through the initialization and manipulation processes which are intended the system initialization and manipulation before the start measurement process and through the control of the parameters, the important parameters connected the electrical structure of sub device.  The most important use gate voltage to tunning the qubit energy levels. 

GARLIC AND TEA TREE OIL COMPOUNDS PROMOTE OXIDATION OF THE TYPICAL 2-CYS PEROXIREDOXIN PROTEINS IN JURKAT T-LYMPHOCYTES

SARMAD A. M. AL-ASADI; KATHRYN A. SCHULLER

Journal of Basrah Researches (Sciences), Volume 45, Issue 1, Pages 65-76

The mammalian typical 2-Cys peroxiredoxin (Prx) proteins have emerged as important sensors and transducers in the cellular response to oxidative stress. Plant natural products have been shown to have both pro- and anti-oxidant effects but their exact mechanisms of action are not fully understood. Here we show that selected compounds from garlic and tea tree oils promote either oxidised dimer formation or hyperoxidised monomer formation in the typical 2-Cys Prx proteins. Diallyl disulphide (DADS) and diallyl trisulphide (DATS) were the main constituents of garlic oil and showed similar effects to their parent oil but DATS was more effective than DADS that indicating to the importance of the number of sulphur atoms. Tea tree oil was a less potent promotor of the oxidation of the Prx proteins than garlic oil. In contrast, terpinen-4-ol, the major constituent of tea tree oil, was a very effective promotor of the oxidation of the Prx proteins. We show that the results could partly, but not entirely, be explained by differences in the effects of the tested compounds on the activity of thioredoxin reductase (TrxR), the enzyme required for the regeneration of the reduced monomer form of the Prx proteins from their oxidised dimer form. The results are discussed in terms of the involvement of the typical 2-Cys Prx proteins in the cellular response oxidative stress.

Synthesis and biological activity of some maleimide derivatives

Dakhil Zughayir Mutlaq; Mohammed shafiq Abd

Journal of Basrah Researches (Sciences), Volume 45, Issue 1, Pages 77-85

    This study included the preparation of four compounds of maleimide derivatives. Novel compounds (N1-N4) were resulting from the reaction between N-substituted maleimide and benzohydrazide. It has been identified the novel maleimide derivatives by using infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), 1H-NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry as well as measured the melting point for the preparing compounds. The synthesized compounds were screened for their in vitro antibacterial activity against five bacterial strains.

Application of two frequencies sub-bottom profiler technique for mapping the bottom of Shatt Al-Arab River

Muter M.A.; A.Z Al-Mayahi; W.M Al-Mosawi

Journal of Basrah Researches (Sciences), Volume 45, Issue 1, Pages 86-101

      Shatt Al-Arab River is one of the most important Iraqi waterways. It has suffered from different types of natural and man-made variations, specifically the past 40 years  such as dramatic declination in water discharges due to recent hydraulic constructions. These changes  affected the bottom, sub bottom, and geomorphologic features of the river bed. To images these changes, a marine geophysical survey represented by high-resolution Sub–Bottom Profiler  was carried out to describe the morphology, structure, and sub-bottom layers of Shatt Al-Arab river. Four sub-bottom transverse profilers were carried out by Strata Box transducers, 10 kHz at Al-Sendebad Island, Al-Ashaar, Um Al-Rasas Island and Sihan meandering areas.
      The results of the sub-bottom profilers showed that the used technique is an essential tool to map sub-marine geological features and locate the buried structures in the river bottom. Specifically,  at Al-Sendebad Island,  there is a depositional process have increased  about 5 m, the recorded depth was  18 m, but it was about  (24-22 m) in previous studies. In Al-Ashaar site section,  many types of sub bottom layers formed by recent and old deposits were correlated with well-log data, the bearing strata is located at 20 m under the bottom of the river. At Um Al-Resas Island,  there is no indication of tectonic activity which may form the Island. The highest depth of the river bottom  recorded at Sihan meandering is about 22 m. These changes may due to  the changes in the hydrological and depositional systems of the river. At Sihan meandering, there are  many prominent features like large depths, river meander, buried channels of ancient streams and a possible trace of fault which may be an indication of neotectonic activity.
 
 

Gully Inventory Mapping Using Object – Based Image Analysis: A case study of Ali Al-Gharbi District, Maysan Governorate, Southern Iraq

Ali K. Al-Ali; Alaa M. Al-Abadi

Journal of Basrah Researches (Sciences), Volume 45, Issue 1, Pages 102-116

    Many studies have been carried out to find the best method for classification of remote sensing data. Traditional methods depend only on pixel value without using the spatial and geometric information of object which is consider an important source to classify the satellite imagery. This study compared between pixel-based and object-based classification algorithms using Sentinel-2 imagery. As for object-based image analysis, the image was segmented in to homogeneous groups using appropriate variables such as scale, shape, size and probability. Classification based on segments was done by a nearest neighbor classifier, while the classification based on pixel value was done by manual digitizing by using the principles of visual interpretation. For accuracy assessment, an error matrix was used to assess the classification between two types of classification. The producer’s accuracy for gully class using object-based image analysis was 90.7% while the user’s accuracy for gully using pixel classification was 84.8%. These classification techniques were subjected to accuracy assessment and the overall accuracy was 89.2% and 0.78 for Kappa coefficient. The results of classification and its accuracy assessment show that the object-based image analysis approach gave more accurate results. 

ADSORPTION OF HEAVY METALS FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION USING PALM TREE POLLEN SHELLS AS LOW COST ADSORBENT

JANAEN Y. AL-SAEEDI; MANAL M. AKBAR; IMAD HADI AL-QAROONI

Journal of Basrah Researches (Sciences), Volume 45, Issue 1, Pages 117-126

In the present study, factors influencing the adsorption of Pb (II), Ni (II) & Cd (II) from aqueous solution by pollen shells have been investigated at 30 ± 1 ◦C. Two techniques of adsorption were used; batch adsorption and continuing adsorption. The optimum results obtained from the first technique (600 µm for adsorbent and 7 pH) were used in the continuing adsorption tests. Highest adsorption occurred after passing the ionized water through the adsorption column filled with 20 cm of adsorbent materials for 30 min.
The study also showed that palm tree pollen shells can be used efficiently as an affordable adsorbent to remove heavy metal ions.